1. Publications that cultivated democratic ideals both before and after March 1, 1919

Realizing that an informed, awakened public was essential to a more just society, 서재필 (Soh Jaipil/Philip Jaisohn) created the Tongnip Sinmun 독립신문 (The Independent). This publication was Korea's first newspaper in the Korean language (as opposed to Chinese, in which an earlier paper, started by Yun Chi-ho (윤치호) in 1883 - the Hanseong Sunbo (한성순보) was published). The Independent (독립신문) was published from 1896 -1899. Yun Chi-ho (윤치호) took over the publication in May 1898, after Jaisohn (서재필) was forced to leave Korea after his "Independence Club" made gains in preventing Russian domination of the Korean government.

Through the Tongnip Sinmun 독립신문 (The Independent), Jaisohn raised the consciousness of both Koreans and foreigners (the paper was also published in English - see middle column below for archives). Not only did the paper advocate for more democratic values, it also suggested reforms to the Korean government and society in order to implement those values. The Tongnip Sinmun, as well as the Jaisohn's *Korea Review* (which was published after March 1, 1919 - see rightmost column) were integral to Korea's Self-Determination Movement.
Stacks Image 103
Archives of 독립신문 (Tongnip Sinmun/The Independent) in Korean
This link connects you to the archives, in Korean, of the paper's first edition on April 7, 1896, to September 14, 1899.
Stacks Image 107
Archives of The Korea Review in English
The Korea Review was 서재필's (Philip Jaisohn's ) publication that was created following the March 1, 1919 Movement for Korean Self-Determination. Published in English, its primary aim was to educate Americans about the Korean situation so that they could become advocates in the Movement have the United States Government recognize the independence of Korea.

This link connects you to the archives, in English, of the first edition of June 1919 on to the July 1922 edition.
Stacks Image 105
Archives of The Independent in English
This link connects you to the archives, in English, of the The Independent's first edition on April 7, 1896, to September 14, 1899.


2. Proceedings of the First Korean Congress in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. (April 14-16, 1919)

Stacks Image 306

Download here or click on image above for the complete Proceedings.

Video footage of the 1919 Korean Congress in Philadelphia.


3. Submission of the Korean Bureau of Information to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

Stacks Image 321

Publication of the Korean Bureau of Information (Bureau de' Information Coréen) on the Independence of Korea and Peace, submitted to the Paris Peace Conference (Versailles) in 1919 - at the end of World War 1. Download the text here (in French).


4. Little Martyrs of Korea

Stacks Image 348

"Little Martyrs of Korea" - a 1919 publication of the Korean Information Bureau (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), which documents the contribution of Korean children to the March 1st Movement. Download the text here.


5. Archival Collection of the Korean Ministry of Patriots & Veterans Affairs

This link connects you to an archival collection at the Korean Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs. This valuable collection contains numerous materials in English including:

Appeals to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson by the Korean National Association (KNA) before March 1, 1919;

The Appeal of February 25, 1919 to the Paris Peace Conference by Henry Chung (정한경) and Syngman Rhee (리승) on behalf of the Korean National Association.

The Appeal of April 1919 to the Paris Peace Conference (at the end of the First World War) by various Organizations, including the "Korean Delegation" represented by Kim Kiusic (김규식); and

Appeals to the League of Nations in 1933, including prescient warnings about Japan's Militarism in Manchuria by Syngman Rhee (이승만) and need for the League to properly address the situation. Japan left the leave the League of Nations on Feb, 24, 1933, Germany followed in October of the same year.

Note: All of the links
at the archives in Korean. Thus, there is a bit of mystery as to what the link may lead you to if you do not know Korean. But the majority of these materials are in English (some are also in French and German). There are 4 pages of links, totaling approximately 120 items. Also realize that some of the documents are multiple pages long. Consult useful graphic below - with annotations in English - that will help you to navigate the Korean User Interface.

Stacks Image 270


6. Philip Jaisohn's (서재필) return to Korea in 1947 and his March 1, 1949 message to Koreans

Rededication of Independence (독립문) Gate on its 50th Anniversary. November, 1947. Philip Jaisohn (서재필) Presiding. Jaisohn was 83 years old at the time.

Philip Jaisohn's (서재필) greeting to the Korean people on March 1, 1949 in which he speaks about the importance of unification. Jaisohn is in the U.S. when he sends this greeting (in Korean). For a transcription of this recording in Korean, download here.

For the English translation of this recording
download here.*

*Transcription and Translation provided by Ms. Hyun Jung Lee (이현정) of The Graduate Institute of Peace Studies, Kyung Hee University.


7. The 3.1.1976 Myeongdong Democracy Declaration (명동 3.1 민주구국선언)

Stacks Image 230

First page of the 3.1 Myeongdong 3.1.1976 Democracy Declaration (명동 3.1 민주구국선언) which involved the arrest and prosecution of numerous democratic activists. Download the entire declaration (in Korean) here.

English translation can be seen being read by Ms. Maria Ahn by watching the video to the right.
Click here for a summary account in English.

Read more about the 3.1.1976 Democracy Declaration
here (in Korean).

Account of trial of Activists (including Ham Sok Hon (함석헌)) for the March 1, 1976 3.1 Myeongdong 3.1.1976 Democracy Declaration (명동 3.1 민주구국선언) (in Korean)

Ms. Maria Ahn reading in English for the first time, the March 1 1976 Declaration of Democracy and National Salvation at the Nieuwe Kerk, Delft, The Netherlands on July 4, 2018. The reading was part of the 2018 Bertha von Suttner Master Class called "Legislating Peace."